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Reproductive management of captive psittacine collections

      Psittacine birds have a long history as companion animals, but psittacine aviculture is a relatively recent pursuit that began in earnest in Europe in the late 19th century. Acquisition of birds was difficult and expensive, and it was not until the middle of the 20th century, with the advent of increased mobility and air travel, that obtaining stock became less cumbersome [
      • Nilsson G.
      ]. Many challenges faced the early aviculturist. Birds were imported on an irregular basis and were prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, the monomorphic sexual nature of most psittacine species made it very difficult to determine the sex and create viable pairings. In addition, little was known about their diseases beyond psittacosis, and veterinarians had no interest or inadequate training in exotic avian medicine.
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        Parrots of the world. Weldon Publishing, Willoughby, NSW, Australia1989
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        Parrots: their care and breeding. Sterling Publishing Co, New York1986
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        Psittaculture: the breeding, rearing, and management of parrots. Silvio Mattacchione & Co, Pickering, Ontario, Canada1991
        • Stone E.G.
        • Millam J.R.
        • El Halawani M.E.
        • Phillips E.
        • Redig P.T.
        Determinants of reproductive success in force re-paired cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
        Applied Animal Behavior Science. 1999; 63: 209-218