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Diagnosis and Treatment of Avian Renal Disease

      Significant causes of renal disease in the companion parrot include dehydration, hypovitaminosis A, excessive dietary vitamin D3, heavy metal toxicity, bacterial nephritis secondary to systemic disease, and renal carcinoma. Additional important differentials include renal lipidosis in merlins and amyloidosis in waterfowl and songbirds. Diagnosis of renal disease may rely on the identification of consistent clinical signs, clinical pathology, survey radiographs, and laparoscopic evaluation and biopsy of the kidneys. Treatment of avian renal disease relies on supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Other treatments vary with the underlying cause and the clinical picture but may include systemic antibiotics, diuretics, parenteral vitamin A, and agents to lower uric acid levels such as allopurinol. Reports on the incidence of renal disease in the avian patient vary, but renal disease is common in poultry and birds of prey [
      • Muller K.
      • Gobel T.
      • Muller S.
      • et al.
      Use of endoscopy and renal biopsy for the diagnosis of kidney disease in free-living birds of prey and owls.
      ,
      • Siller W.G.
      Renal pathology of the fowl- a review.
      ]. Clinical renal disease is probably under-recognized in the companion bird, with the notable exception of renal tumors in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).
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