Review Article|Articles in Press

Gerontology of Psittacines

Published:September 02, 2020DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Exotic Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. Stedman's medical dictionary. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (MD)2016
        • Harman D.
        The Free Radical Theory of Aging.
        Antioxid Redox Signal. 2003; 5: 557-561
        • Pires S.F.
        The illegal parrot trade: a literature review.
        Glob Crime. 2012; 13: 176-190
        • Vogelnest L.
        • Talbot J.J.
        Chapter 15: Quality-of-life assessment and end-of-life planning for geriatric zoo animals.
        in: Fowler’s zoo and wild animal medicine, Current therapy. vol. 9. Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2019: 83-91
        • Cohen A.A.
        • Holmes D.J.
        Evolution and the biology of aging.
        in: Reference module in biomedical sciences. Elsevier, 2014
        • Holmes D.J.
        • Austad S.N.
        The Evolution of Avian Senescence Patterns: Implications for Understanding Primary Aging Processes1.
        Am Zool. 2015; 35: 307-317
        • Partridge L.
        • Barton N.H.
        Optimality, mutation and the evolution of ageing.
        Nat Ecol Evol. 1993; 362: 305-311
        • Rodríguez J.A.
        • Marigorta U.M.
        • Hughes D.A.
        • et al.
        Antagonistic pleiotropy and mutation accumulation influence human senescence and disease.
        Nat Ecol Evol. 2017; 1: 0055
        • Harman D.
        Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry.
        J Gerontol. 1956; 11: 298-300
        • Holmes D.J.
        • Harper J.M.
        Chapter 22 - Birds as models for the biology of aging and aging-related disease: an update.
        in: Ram J.L. Conn P.M. Conn's handbook of models for human aging. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego (CA)2018: 301-312
        • Williams G.C.
        Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence.
        Evolution. 1957; 11: 398-411
        • Kirkwood T.B.L.
        The disposable soma theory: origins and evolution.
        in: Shefferson R.P. Jones O.R. Salguero-Gómez R. The evolution of senescence in the tree of life. Cambridge University Press, New York2017: 23-41
        • Austad S.N.
        Birds as Models of Aging in Biomedical Research.
        ILAR J. 1997; 38: 137-140
        • Holmes D.J.
        • Austad S.N.
        Birds as animal models for the comparative biology of aging: A prospectus.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995; 50A: 59-66
        • Montgomery M.K.
        • Hulbert A.J.
        • Buttemer W.A.
        Does the oxidative stress theory of aging explain longevity differences in birds? I. Mitochondrial ROS production.
        Exp Gerontol. 2012; 47: 203-210
        • Ku H.-H.
        • Sohal R.S.
        Comparison of mitochondrial pro-oxidant generation and anti-oxidant defenses between rat and pigeon: possible basis of variation in longevity and metabolic potential.
        Mech Ageing Dev. 1993; 72: 67-76
        • Herrero A.
        • Barja G.
        H2O2 production of heart mitochondria and aging rate are slower in canaries and parakeets than in mice: sites of free radical generation and mechanisms involved.
        Mech Ageing Dev. 1998; 103: 133-146
        • Brown J.C.L.
        • McClelland G.B.
        • Faure P.A.
        • et al.
        Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (Mus musculus).
        Mech Ageing Dev. 2009; 130: 467-476
        • Lightfoot T.L.
        Geriatric psittacine medicine.
        Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2010; 13: 27-49
        • Brouwer K.
        • Jones M.L.
        • King C.E.
        • et al.
        Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity.
        Int Zoo Yearb. 2000; 37: 299-316
        • Young A.M.
        • Hobson E.A.
        • Lackey L.B.
        • et al.
        Survival on the ark: life-history trends in captive parrots.
        Anim Conserv. 2012; 15: 28-43
        • Reavill D.R.
        • Dorrestein G.M.
        Pathology of Aging Psittacines.
        Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2010; 13: 135-150
        • Munshi-South J.
        • Wilkinson G.S.
        Diet Influences Life Span in Parrots (Psittaciformes).
        Auk. 2006; 123: 108-118
        • Nemeth N.M.
        • Gonzalez-Astudillo V.
        • Oesterle P.T.
        • et al.
        A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Avian Diseases Diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia.
        J Comp Pathol. 2016; 155: 105-120
        • Reavill D.R.
        • Dorrestein G.M.
        Chapter 32: Psittacines, Coliiformes, Musophagiformes, Cuculiformes.
        in: Therio K.A. McAloose D. St. Leger J. Pathology of wildlife and zoo animals. Academic press, San Diego (CA)2018: 775-798
        • Nordberg C.
        • O'Brien R.T.
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • et al.
        Ultrasound Examination and Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Liver in Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2000; 14 (185): 180-184
        • Hochleithner M.
        • Hochleithner C.
        • Harrison L.D.
        Chapter 15: Evaluating and treating the liver.
        in: Clinical avian medicine. vol. 1. Spix publishing, Palm Beach (FL)2006: 441-449
        • Rush E.M.
        • Wernick M.
        • Beaufrere H.
        • et al.
        Chapter 13: Advances in clinical pathology and diagnostic medicine.
        in: Speer B.L. Current therapy in avian medicine and surgery. Elsevier, St. Louis (MO)2016: 461-530
        • Cray C.
        • Gautier D.
        • Harris D.J.
        • et al.
        Changes in clinical enzyme activity and bile acid levels in psittacine birds with altered liver function and disease.
        J Avian Med Surg. 2008; 22: 17-24
        • Barboza T.
        • Beaufrère H.
        Comparison of a Point-of-care Cholesterol Meter With a Reference Laboratory Analyzer in Companion Psittaciformes.
        J Avian Med Surg. 2019; 33: 7-14
        • Clyde V.L.
        • Orosz S.E.
        • Munson L.
        Severe Hepatic Fibrosis and Bile Duct Hyperplasia in Four Amazon Parrots.
        J Avian Med Surg. 1996; 10: 252-257
      2. Reavill DR, Lennox A. Comparison of serum biochemistry values and liver biopsy histopathology results in psittacines. Paper presented at: 9th European AAV Conference, March, 2007; Zurich, CHE.

      3. Plumb’s veterinary drugs. Educational Concepts, L.L.C..
        (Available at:) (Accessed June 29, 2020)
        • Taylor W.M.
        Chapter 7: Clinical significance of the avian cloaca: interrelationships with the kidneys and the hindgut.
        in: Speer B.L. Current therapy in avian medicine and surgery. Elsevier, St. Louis (MO)2016: 329-344
        • Brock A.P.
        • Grunkemeyer V.L.
        • Fry M.M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of Osmolality and Refractometric Readings of Hispaniolan Amazon Parrot (Amazona ventralis) Urine.
        J Avian Med Surg. 2013; 27: 264-268
        • Cojean O.
        • Larrat S.
        • Vergneau-Grosset C.
        Clinical management of avian renal disease.
        Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2020; 23: 75-101
        • Jenkins J.R.
        Critical Care of Pet Birds.
        Vet Clin Exot Anim Pract. 2016; 19: 501-512
        • Palocz O.
        • Gál J.
        • Csikó G.
        Differences in NSAID Toxicity in Four Avian Species.
        J Vet Sci Med Diagn. 2016; 5: 3
        • Cuthbert R.
        • Parry-Jones J.
        • Green R.E.
        • et al.
        NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia's critically endangered vultures.
        Biol Lett. 2007; 3: 91-94
        • Summa N.M.
        • Guzman D.S.-M.
        • Larrat S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of High Dosages of Oral Meloxicam in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2017; 31 (109): 108-116
        • Montesinos A.
        • Ardiaca M.
        • Juan-Sallés C.
        • et al.
        Effects of Meloxicam on Hematologic and Plasma Biochemical Analyte Values and Results of Histologic Examination of Kidney Biopsy Specimens of African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2015; 29: 1-8
        • Dijkstra B.
        • Guzman D.S.-M.
        • Gustavsen K.
        • et al.
        Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
        Am J Vet Res. 2015; 76: 308-317
        • Klandorf H.
        • Rathore D.S.
        • Iqbal M.
        • et al.
        Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.
        Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001; 129: 93-104
        • Carro M.D.
        • Falkenstein E.
        • Radke W.J.
        • et al.
        Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.
        Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010; 151: 12-17
        • Lumeij J.T.
        • Sprang E.P.M.
        • Redig P.T.
        Further studies on allopurinol-induced hyperuricaemia and visceral gout in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
        Avian Pathol. 1998; 27: 390-393
        • Poffers J.
        • Lumeij J.T.
        • Timmermans-Sprang E.P.M.
        • et al.
        Further studies on the use of allopurinol to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations in the Red-tailed Hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis ) hyperuricaemic model.
        Avian Pathol. 2002; 31: 567-572
        • Fitzgerald B.C.
        • Beaufrere H.
        Chapter 6: Cardiology.
        in: Speer B.L. Current therapy in avian medicine and surgery. Elsevier, St. Louis (MO)2016: 252-328
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Nevarez J.G.
        • Wakamatsu N.
        • et al.
        Experimental Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Quaker Parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).
        Vet Pathol. 2013; 50: 1116-1126
        • Walsh A.L.
        • Shivaprasad H.L.
        Unusual lesions of atherosclerosis in Psittacines.
        J Exot Pet Med. 2013; 22: 366-374
        • Beaufrère H.
        Avian atherosclerosis: parrots and beyond.
        J Exot Pet Med. 2013; 22: 336-347
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Ammersbach M.
        • Reavill D.R.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of and risk factors associated with atherosclerosis in psittacine birds.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013; 242: 1696-1704
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Vet D.M.
        • Cray C.
        • et al.
        Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in Psittaciformes.
        J Avian Med Surg. 2014; 28: 225-231
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Rodriguez D.
        • Pariaut R.
        • et al.
        Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
        Am J Vet Res. 2011; 72: 210-218
        • Yu P.H.
        • Lee Y.L.
        • Chen C.L.
        • et al.
        Comparison of three computed tomographic angiography protocols to assess diameters of major arteries in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).
        Am J Vet Res. 2017; 79: 42-53
        • Gustavsen K.A.
        • Stanhope K.L.
        • Lin A.S.
        • et al.
        Effects of exercise on the plasma lipid profile in hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia.
        J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016; 47: 760-769
        • Simone-Freilicher E.
        Use of Isoxsuprine for Treatment of Clinical Signs Associated With Presumptive Atherosclerosis in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2007; 21: 215-219
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Holder K.A.
        • Bauer R.
        • et al.
        Intermittent Claudication-like Syndrome Secondary to Atherosclerosis in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2011; 25: 266-276
        • Beaufrère H.
        • Papich M.G.
        • Brandão J.
        • et al.
        Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2015; 29: 18-24
        • Robertson J.A.
        • Guzman D.S.-M.
        • Graham J.L.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of Orally Administered Atorvastatin on Plasma Lipid and Biochemistry Profiles in Hypercholesterolemic Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2020; 34 (39): 32-40
        • Fitzgerald B.C.
        • Dias S.
        • Martorell J.
        Cardiovascular Drugs in Avian, Small Mammal, and Reptile Medicine.
        Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2018; 21: 399-442
        • Robat C.S.
        • Ammersbach M.
        • Mans C.
        Avian Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.
        Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2017; 20: 57-86
        • Zehnder A.
        • Graham J.
        • Reavill D.R.
        • et al.
        Chapter 3: Neoplastic diseases in avian species.
        in: Speer B.L. Current therapy in avian medicine and surgery. Elsevier, St. Louis (MO)2016: 107-141
        • Hvenegaard A.P.
        • Safatle A.M.V.
        • Guimarães M.B.
        • et al.
        Retrospective study of ocular disorders in Amazon parrots.
        Pesq Vet Bras. 2009; 29: 979-984
        • Williams D.L.
        Chapter 9: The avian eye.
        in: Williams D.L. Ophthalmology of exotic pets. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames (IA)2012: 119-158
        • Clubb S.L.
        • Karpinski L.
        Aging in Macaws.
        Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians. 1993; 7: 31-33
        • Baine K.
        • Hendrix D.V.H.
        • Kuhn S.E.
        • et al.
        The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2016; 30 (16): 8-13
        • Cole G.A.
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Krugner-Higby L.
        • et al.
        Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1471-1476
        • Paul-Murphy J.R.
        • Sladky K.K.
        • Krugner-Higby L.A.
        • et al.
        Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1201-1210
        • Paul-Murphy J.R.
        • Krugner-Higby L.A.
        • Tourdot R.L.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate for alleviation of experimentally induced arthritic pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae).
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1211-1219