Preface: Birds of a Feather Flock Together ix
Application of Epidemiology and Principles of Herd/Flock Health for the Exotic Animal Veterinarian 495
Zhi Jian Kelvin Lim and Shangzhe Xie
Against a backdrop of climate change and epidemics, the exotic animal veterinarian is well positioned to detect emerging and exotic disease threats, prevent and control zoonotic diseases, and identify antimicrobial resistance. Within the traditional context of animal and public health, epidemiology has had a focus on veterinary preventive health and in disease investigation and control particularly in food animal and safety application. The understanding of preventive health management and veterinary epidemiology expands the repertoire of the clinical veterinarian to advise and implement and evaluate group animal health programs and biosecurity measures as well as conduct disease investigations.
Therapeutics in Herd/Flock Medicine 509
David J. McLelland and Jennifer M. McLelland
When treatment is required for a herd/flock health concern, a range of factors must be considered to determine the preferred treatment strategy. If a group treatment strategy is pursued, considerations to optimize the likelihood of safe and effective group treatment include taxon-specific pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, the formulation of prescribed medication, the type and amount of food, the number and type of water sources, enclosure design, size and demography of the group, weather conditions, and health status of individuals in the group. In addition, antimicrobial stewardship principles and relevant legislation/regulation must be at the forefront of decision making.
Managing the Health of Captive Flocks of Birds 521
Ellen K. Rasidi and Juan Cornejo
There are many intersecting aspects to the avicultural management of a captive flock. Extensive knowledge of the natural history of the species kept is key to fulfilling the environmental, social, nutritional, and behavioral requirements of the birds, whether in a mixed- or sole-species aviary. Species compatibility with the environment, climate, and other co-occupants plays a role as well, as does hygiene, good avicultural management, and veterinary involvement and consultation. In understanding and meeting these requirements, optimal health can be maintained through the reduction or elimination of stressors and the maintenance of normal physiologic function.
Managing Disease Outbreaks in Captive Flocks of Birds 531
Ellen K. Rasidi and Shangzhe Xie
The modern avian practitioner may be called upon to manage disease outbreak in aviary or zoologic bird flocks. Traditionally, managing these types of disease events has been based on avicultural production principles, which may require modification to adapt to the modern leisure, educational, or exhibition aviary. We discuss how principles of avicultural medicine and disease investigation may be adapted to the aviary flock and illustrate these modified principles with real-world examples.
Managing the Health of Captive Herds of Exotic Companion Mammals 547
Kim Le and Joanne Sheen
Common medical problems diagnosed and treated in individual companion exotic mammals are relevant in a herd-health setting. Many of these problems are often associated with poor husbandry and/or inappropriate nutrition. Rabbits, ferrets, chinchillas, and rodents have been domesticated alongside humans and an understanding of their ethology gives veterinarians a base knowledge in making recommendations for animals in their care. This article briefly reviews the ethology and husbandry in such species, but detailed needs are beyond the scope of this article.
Managing Disease Outbreaks in Captive Herds of Exotic Companion Mammals 567
Management of epizootics of exotic companion mammal herds relies on careful observance of animals, proper management and husbandry, adequate nutrition, and stress reduction. Many diseases occur because of the stress of weaning so anticipating this and maximizing sanitation and ventilation, minimizing overcrowding and concurrent disease, and providing enough fiber for herbivores is prudent. Antimicrobial therapy must be carefully considered in the route of administration and the likely risk of enterotoxemia development. Separation of affected animals, rapid diagnostic testing, and implementation of treatment and supportive care minimizes losses during epizootics. Knowledge of potential zoonotic pathogens is important for veterinarians and staff.
Managing the Health of Captive Groups of Reptiles and Amphibians 609
Trent Charles van Zanten and Shane Craig Simpson
Managing the health of reptile and amphibian collections is centered on providing appropriate environmental parameters, husbandry conditions, and nutrition as well as maintaining good welfare and careful collection planning. Disease transmission is reduced through quarantine, appropriate diagnostic testing, and annual veterinary health assessment."
Prevention is Better than Cure: An Overview of Disease Outbreak Management in Herptiles 647
Shirley Yeo LLizo
This article will focus on the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases affecting reptiles and amphibians. There will be discussions on the characteristics of each pathogen and treatment strategies based on the differences in pathogens. As the saying goes, “Prevention is better than cure”. The key to successfully manage a disease outbreak is to prevent one, by that, it means to have already in place preventative measures. This will reduce the risk of a disease outbreak. Preventative measures may include source of specimen, quarantine, types of testing while in quarantine, and treatment protocols based on test results.
Reproduction Management of Herds/Flocks of Exotic Animals: Investigating Breeding Failures in Birds, Reptiles, and Small Mammals 661
Lorenzo Crosta, Daniele Petrini, and Shivananden Sawmy
The management of a breeding facility of exotic species is challenging and managing these on a large scale can be a daunting task for general practitioners or novice exotic animal veterinarians. They are usually not trained to work with flocks or herds, and even most exotic animal veterinarians are used to working with single patients. This article gives some suggestions and tips on how to proceed when facing an exotic animal collection and especially when breeding is not as successful as expected.
Recommended Health Care and Disease-Prevention Programs for Herds/Flocks of Exotic Animals 697
Michelle Sutherland, Hamish Baron, and Joshua Llinas
Preventative health care is an essential part of the ownership and veterinary management of exotic animals. This article provides an overview of the current recommendations for health care and disease-prevention programs for herds or flocks of exotic animals, specifically companion and aviary birds, backyard poultry; snakes, lizards, chelonians, and amphibians; rabbits, ferrets, and common exotic small mammals. Husbandry practices, disease screening suggestions and techniques, and vaccination strategies, where appropriate, are reviewed.