Advertisement

Pain Recognition and Assessment in Birds

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Exotic Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Ludders J.
        • Robertson S.
        • et al.
        The need for a cross-species approach to the study of pain in animals.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004; 224: 692-697
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Sladky K.
        • Krugner-Higby L.
        • et al.
        Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1201-1210
        • Malik A.
        • Valentine A.
        Pain in birds: a review for veterinary nurses.
        Vet Nurs J. 2018; 33: 11-25
        • Machin K.L.
        Avian pain: physiology and evaluation.
        Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet. 2005; 27: 98-109
        • Machin K.L.
        Recognition and treatment of pain in birds.
        Pain Management in Veterinary Practice. 2013; (Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey): 407-415
        • Douglas J.M.
        • Guzman D.S.M.
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        Pain in birds: the anatomical and physiological basis.
        Vet Clinics: Exot Anim Pract. 2018; 21: 17-31
        • Gentle M.J.
        Pain in birds.
        Anim Welf. 1992; 1: 235-247
        • LU Sneddon
        • Elwood R.W.
        • Adamo S.A.
        • et al.
        Defining and assessing animal pain.
        Anim Behav. 2014; 97: 201-212
        • Beausoleil N.J.
        • Holdsworth S.E.
        • Lehmann H.
        Avian nociception and pain. Sturkie’s avian physiology.
        Academic Press, Cambridge, MA2022: 223-231
        • Cortelli P.
        • Giannini G.
        • Favoni V.
        • et al.
        Nociception and autonomic nervous system.
        Neurol Sci. 2013; 34: 41-46
        • Necker R.
        • Reiner B.
        Temperature-sensitive mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and heat nociceptors in the feathered skin of pigeons.
        J Comp Physiol. 1980; 135: 201-207
        • Bardo M.T.
        • Bhatnagar R.K.
        • Gebhard G.F.
        • et al.
        Opiate receptor development in midbrain and forebrain of posthatch chicks.
        Devel Brain Res. 1982; 3: 668-673
        • Reiner A.
        • Brauth S.E.
        • Kitt C.A.
        • et al.
        Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptor types in the forebrain and midbrain of pigeons.
        J Comput Neurosci. 1989; 280: 359-382
        • Csillag A.
        • Bourne R.C.
        • Stewart M.G.
        Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): an in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study.
        J Comput Neurosci. 1990; 302: 543-551
        • Reiner A.
        • Davis B.M.
        • Brecha N.C.
        • et al.
        The distribution of enkephalinlike immunoreactivity in the telencephalon of the adult and developing domestic chicken.
        J Comput Neurosci. 1984; 228: 245-262
        • Scanes C.G.
        • Pierzchala-Koziec K.
        Perspectives on endogenous opioids in birds.
        Front Physio. 2018; 9: 1842
        • Fernandez-Lopez A.
        • Revilla V.
        • Candelas M.A.
        A comparative study of alpha2- and beta-adrenoceptor distribution in pigeon and chick brain.
        Eur J Neurosci. 1997; 9: 871-883
        • Zhai S.-Y.
        • Atsumi S.
        Large dorsal horn neurons which receive inputs from numerous substance P–like immunoreactive axon terminals in the laminae I and II of the chicken spinal cord.
        Neurosci Res. 1997; 28: 147-154
        • Hawkins M.G.
        The use of analgesics in birds, reptiles, and small exotic mammals.
        J Exot Pet Med. 2006; 15: 177-192
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Hawkins M.G.
        Bird specific considerations: Recognizing pain behaviour in pet birds.
        in: Gaynor J.S. Muir W.W. Handbook of veterinary pain management. 3rd ed. Elsevier, St. Louis, MO2014: 536-554 (Ch. 26)
        • Turpen K.K.
        • Welle K.R.
        • Trail J.L.
        • et al.
        Establishing stress behaviors in response to manual restraint in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2019; 33: 38-45
        • Remage-Healey L.
        • Romero L.M.
        Daily and seasonal variation in response to stress in captive starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): glucose.
        Gen Comp Endo. 2000; 119: 60-68
        • Henson P.
        • Grant T.A.
        The effects of human disturbance on trumpeter swan breeding behavior.
        Wildl Soc Bull. 1991; 19: 248-257
        • Anil S.S.
        • Anil L.
        • Deen J.
        Challenges of pain assessment in domestic animals.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002; 220: 313-319
        • Desmarchelier M.
        • Troncy E.
        • Fitzgerald G.
        • et al.
        Analgesic effects of meloxicam administration on postoperative orthopedic pain in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).
        Am J Vet Res. 2012; 73: 361-367
        • Desmarchelier M.
        • Troncy E.
        • Beauchamp G.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a fracture pain model in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).
        Am J Vet Res. 2012; 73: 353-360
        • Cole G.A.
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Kruger-Higby L.
        • et al.
        Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1471-1476
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Kruger-Higby L.
        • Tourdot R.L.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate for alleviation of experimentally induced arthritic pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae).
        Am J Vet Res. 2009; 70: 1211-1219
        • Nasr M.A.F.
        • Nicol C.J.
        • Murrell J.C.
        Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7: e42420
        • Nasr M.A.F.
        • Murrell J.
        • Wilkins L.J.
        • et al.
        The effect of keel fractures on egg-production parameters, mobility and behaviour in individual laying hens.
        Anim Welf. 2012; 21: 127-135
        • Mazor-Thomas J.E.
        • Mann P.E.
        • Karas A.Z.
        • et al.
        Pain-suppressed behaviors in the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2014; 152: 83-91
        • Heatley J.J.
        • Oliver J.W.
        • Hosgood G.
        • et al.
        Serum corticosterone concentrations in response to restraint, anesthesia, and skin testing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2000; 14: 172-176
        • Ludders J.W.
        • Langenberg J.A.
        • Czekala N.M.
        • et al.
        Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.
        J Wildl Dis. 2001; 37: 646-652
        • Hawkins M.G.
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Guzman D.S.M.
        Recognition, assessment, and management of pain in birds. Current therapy in avian medicine and surgery.
        WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA2016: 616-630
        • Shaver S.L.
        • Robinson N.G.
        • Wright B.D.
        • et al.
        A multimodal approach to management of suspected neuropathic pain in a prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2009; 23: 209-213
        • Duncan I.J.H.
        • Slee G.S.
        • Seawright E.
        Behavioural consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry.
        Br Poult Sci. 1989; 30: 479-488
        • Duncan I.J.H.
        • Beatty E.R.
        • Hocking P.M.
        • et al.
        Assessment of pain associated with degenerative hip disorders in adult male turkeys.
        Res Vet Sci. 1991; 50: 200-203
        • Gentle M.J.
        • Waddington D.
        • Hunter L.N.
        • et al.
        Behavioural evidence for persistent pain following partial beak amputation in chickens.
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 1990; 27: 149-157
        • Sinclair A.
        • Wyneken C.W.
        • Veldkamp T.
        • et al.
        Behavioural assessment of pain in commercial turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with foot pad dermatitis.
        Br Poult Sci. 2015; 56: 511-521
        • Mathews K.
        • Kronen P.W.
        • Lascelles D.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for recognition, assessment and treatment of pain: WSAVA Global Pain Council.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2014; 55: E10-E68
        • Chitty J.
        Care of the geriatric raptor.
        Veterinary Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2020; 23: 503-523
        • Armstrong E.A.
        • Rufener C.
        • Toscano M.J.
        • et al.
        Keel bone fractures induce a depressive-like state in laying hens.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 1-14
        • Casey-Trott T.M.
        • Widowski T.M.
        Behavioral differences of laying hens with fractured keel bones within furnished cages.
        Front Vet Sci. 2016; 3: 42
        • Casey-Trott T.M.
        • Widowski T.M.
        Validation of an accelerometer to quantify inactivity in laying hens with or without keel-bone fractures.
        Anim Welf. 2018; 27: 103-114
        • Rentsch A.K.
        • Rufener C.B.
        • Spadavecchia C.
        • et al.
        Laying hen’s mobility is impaired by keel bone fractures and does not improve with paracetamol treatment.
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2019; 216: 19-25
        • Wei H.
        • Bi Y.
        • Xin H.
        • et al.
        Keel fracture changed the behavior and reduced the welfare, production performance, and egg quality in laying hens housed individually in furnished cages.
        Poult Sci. 2020; 99: 3334-3342
        • Jensen T.S.
        • Baron R.
        • Haanpaa M.
        • et al.
        A new definition of neuropathic pain.
        Pain. 2011; 152: 2204-2205
        • Cowan M.L.
        • Monks D.J.
        • Raidal S.R.
        Granuloma formation and suspected neuropathic pain in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) secondary to an oil-based, inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administered for protection against pigeon paramyxovirus-1.
        Aust Vet J. 2014; 92: 171-176
        • Figueiredo J.P.
        • Cruz M.L.
        • Mendes G.M.
        • et al.
        Assessment of brachial plexus blockade in chickens by an axillary approach.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 511-518
        • Schlicht E.
        • Kempenaers B.
        The immediate impact of ringing, blood sampling and PIT-Tag implanting on the behaviour of blue tits cyanistes caeruleus.
        Ardea. 2018; 106: 39-98
        • Pinho R.H.
        • Leach M.C.
        • Minto B.W.
        • et al.
        Postoperative pain behaviours in rabbits following orthopaedic surgery and effect of observer presence.
        PLoS One. 2020; 15: e0240605
        • Guzman D.S.M.
        • Douglas J.M.
        • Beaufrere H.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).
        Am J Vet Res. 2020; 81: 775-782
        • Klune C.B.
        • Robbins H.N.K.
        • Leung V.S.Y.
        • et al.
        Hypothermia during general anesthesia interferes with pain assessment in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).
        J Amer Asso Lab Anim Sci. 2020; 59: 719-725
        • Pijpers N.
        • van den Heuvel H.
        • Duncan I.H.
        • et al.
        Understanding chicks’ emotions: are eye blinks & facial temperatures reliable indicators?.
        bioRxiv. 2022; : 1-21
        • Bertin A.
        • Cornilleau F.
        • Lemarchand J.
        • et al.
        Are there facial indicators of positive emotions in birds? A first exploration in Japanese quail.
        Behav Processes. 2018; 157: 470-473